This work examines Creole ethnic identity, focusing particularly on the transition from Creole to American. These adaptations and transformations were facilitated through Creole participation in fraternal societies, the organized labor movement and public and parochial schools that provided English-only instruction. The "Americanization of Creole New Orleans" has been a common theme in Creole studies since the early 's, but no prior study has seriously examined the cultural and social transformation of Creole New Orleans by addressing the place and role of public and private institutions as instruments and facilitators of Americanization.
By understanding the transformation of Creole New Orleans, this thesis demonstrates how an historically mixed-race community was ultimately divided by the segregationist culture of the early-twentieth century U. This thesis makes considerable use of census data, draws upon press reports, and brings to bear a wide assortment of oral histories conducted by the author and others.
This doctoral thesis engages the Creole community in New Orleans on its own terms, and in its own idioms, to understand what "becoming American" meant for New Orleans Creoles between French and Frenchness in Louisiana: Literature, Language and Identity. Several literary and cultural movements in post-colonial contexts aim to reclaim their history by narrating it through their own voices, as did the modernist Negritude writers from Africa and the Caribbean. That movement's writers and That movement's writers and members developed discourses and performed identities rooted in Africa in order to construct and appropriate precolonial, pre-plantation, pre-Europeanized African selves.
History was also at the core of several Louisiana French groups' discourses in cultural and literary movements trying to reinvigorate French and Frenchness in the state in the past few decades. Some of the 19th century prominent Creoles fixed their eyes on and traveled to France as they sought inspiration and French education; whereas, some of the late 20th century Cajuns sought, and some continue to seek, to be part of a collective North American francophone identity, specifically rooted in Acadian history, as well as to integrate more generally the Francophonie at large.
Scheffer, attempted '' to raise the Island of O Tuai against Tameamea, in the hope of annexing it to the Empire of Russia. Petersburg, fur die Jahre, , besonders abgedruckt. Gedruckt bey Karl Kray. See page , et seq. Les Marins e'crivent mal, mais avec assez de candeur. Unternommen in den Jahren , , und , auf Kosten Sr.
This edition is in three parts bound together, small quarto; with plans and plates.
The Ukase of invested it with special and exclusive privileges for a period of twenty years on the shores of Northwest America, between latitude north and Bering Strait, on the Aleutian Islands, the Kuril Islands and the islands in Bering Sea. Under its charter it paid no direct duty to the Government.
No foreigner was permitted to be a shareholder. It was authorized to use a seal and a flag bearing the Imperial coat of arms. From the year , officers of the Navy were constantly in the employ of the Company, and they were enjoined to obey the orders of the Chief Manager. The Governor of the Company at Sitka was either a naval or military officer.
It seems clear that these developments, continued through many years, had impressed the Russian Government with the importance of the North Pacific from Japan through the Kuril Islands, along the Kamchatka coast, through the long chain of the Aleutian Islands, and the coast and archipelagoes of Northwestern America, as an immense and profitable field for existing and future traffic; and furthermore, that any claims of Spain, England, France and America had been only formalities of possession as against her right of discovery, occupation and assertion through nearly this whole bounding line of the Northern Pacific.
The traffic referred to was not solely with reference to the sea otter, because that industry was largely destroyed, but the fur seal had become a source of wealth, and effective means were proposed to preserve the herds of the Pribilof Islands. In the matter of the rights of discovery and occupation of the Northwest Coast of America by the Russians, we have presented sufficient evidence to establish their claims without tracing in detail the adventurers from Bombay and Boston, Macao and Bristol, who were drawn hither by the knowledge they had gleaned of what the Russians had accomplished.
Spain, Great Britain and France fitted out expeditions for explorations: The Russians had reached the coast at two points in Their adventurous fur traders soon traced the Aleutians to the mainland, discovered the Fur Seal Islands in Bering Sea, and established headquarters for some years at Kadiak, before John Meares under Portuguese colors, and Portlock and Dixon, English fur traders, reached the coast. We have presented evidence which goes far to prove that Russia, as early as , or very soon thereafter, had the intention of controlling the North Pacific; and took advantage of Spain's long inactivity in colonizing the countries she had discovered north of San Francisco.
Through the Alaska islands and seaboard, Russia had her small military guard at each establishment; then she ventured as far south as Fort Ross in latitude 31' and fortified an extensive stockade. Except at Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River, no other nation held any post or established any colony on the Northwest Coast. On the next page he declares that England and Russia "will control the human race," and "confine every other nation within the scanty limits of its own proper locality.
He declares that the acquisition of territory by the Louisiana Purchase "gradually nursed into life the marauder's plea of contiguity, in other words when the Americans found the Northwest coast within their reach, then, and not until then, did they try to find texts for grasping it.
The end was as impracticable as the means were unjustifiable. In the discussion of the Plenipotentiaries to the Convention, the rights of discovery were acknowledged, and only slight contentions offered that Russia had no other trading station than Sitka in the Archipelago.
Alexander George Findlay, F. It is painful in this connection to quote the declaration of the Duke of Wellington as to Russia's right of discovery, but it is introduced to exhibit the lack of geographical knowledge of the Northwest coast which prevailed in some quarters during the negotiations. Volume I, page The title in full is given elsewhere, t Fur Seal Arbitration: For nearly seventy years the Russian American Company carried on trade with the native inhabitants and foreign vessels and foreign trading companies throughout the northern coasts of the Pacific, east and west, and through the Bering Sea and the Arctic.
In the Fur Seal Controversy , the organization and methods of the Company were the subject of much discussion, and from Volume II we may appropriate a few words of its history. Pages "The Russian American Company was the outgrowth of the numerous trading associations, which, soon after the discoveries of , began to develop the lucrative fur trade in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea.
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The rivalry and competition which grew up between them proved in many ways disastrous, and resulted eventually in the placing of the fur trade of the Colonies under the control of a single powerful organization. This was accomplished in , in which year a ukase was issued, creating the 'Russian American Company' and containing its first charter. It was authorized to establish agencies within and without the empire, and to use a seal and a flag bearing the Imperial coat of arms.
Its chief place of business, which was originally at Irkutsk, was soon transferred to St. Petersburg, where its shareholders, none of whom were allowed to be foreigners, embraced members of the Imperial family and the high nobility. It was compelled at its own expense to carry on the government of the region over which its privileges extended, to maintain courts, the church, and a small military force, and, at a later period, to hold ready at various points on the coast, provisions and stores for the use in cases of emergency, of the naval vessels or troops of the Russian Government.
The Company paid no royalty or rent to the Government, but in the exchange of furs for teas on the Chinese frontier, the Government collected large duties upon the teas.
Oh, I pity your weakness that, [Pg 84] through the craftiness of man, you are turned from the simplicity of the gospel. In Spain awoke to the possibilities of the Northwest Coast; and in she advanced to the Bay of San Francisco, which was in a few years recognized as the port to be fortified and held against all encroachments by foreign powers, t Cambridge, and Chaplain to his Grace the Duke of Marlborough. The English made no attempt to enforce their title, but they put the deed on file, and used it long after as the base of their claim to the region of the Lakes. The troops would ruin everything as they advanced, and New York would quickly be destroyed and burned. In this he proposed to gather all the tribes of the lakes at Detroit, civilize them and teach them French, "insomuch that from pagans they would become children of the Church, and therefore good subjects of the King.
This remarkable document was confessedly prompted and drawn up by the Russian American Company on account of the illicit traffic, in spirituous liquors and fire-arms, with the natives by the foreign fur traders in the North Pacific. The original was signed by the Directing Senate and endorsed by the Emperor, "Be it accordingly, Alexander.
It was made known on the 4th of September, , and nine days later, the Emperor renewed the charter of the Russian American Company for twenty years, with some additions to the previous charter. In all foreigners had been ordered to leave Kamchatka and Okhotsk; and were forbidden from enjoying any intercourse or trade with the native inhabitants; as well as from visiting the waters frequented by sea otters and fur seals, under penalty of the most severe measures, including the confiscation of ships and the imprisonment of crews engaged in illegal traffic.
All force was to be used to drive foreigners from these waters.
The pursuits of commerce, whaling, and fishery, and of all other industry, on all islands, ports, and gulfs, including the whole of the north-west coast of America, beginning from Behring's Straits, to the 51st degree of northern latitude, also from the Aleutian Islands to the eastern coast of Siberia, as well as along the Kurile Islands from Behring's Straits to the south cape of the Island of Urup,f viz.
John Murray, Albemarle Street. It is the third island northeasterly from Yezo. It is therefore prohibited to all foreign vessels not only to land on the coasts and islands belonging to Russia, as stated above, but also to approach them within less than ioo Italian miles. The transgressor's vessel is subject to confiscation, along with the whole cargo. So far as the Ukase affected the seas and their shores, Russia must have regarded it as merely declaratory of existing rights; and in the instructions of September 21st, , to the Chief Manager of the Russian American Company, he was assured that a squadron of naval vessels would visit the North Pacific to protect their exclusive privileges.
The Company even looked forward to reduce the catch of fur seals on the Pribilof Islands. The rights and privileges which had been granted to the Russian American Company by the Ukase of , and which had been jealously guarded, were, by this new Ukase, to be strengthened by the presence of naval vessels having supreme authority.
Volume I, pages Moreover, it covered the interrelation of the islands of the eastern part of the Bering Sea to each other and to the mainland and the Aleutians; it also covered the Kadiak group. It was particularly important in protecting the Saint Paul and Saint George Islands upon which the fur seal herd spent the breeding season.
This Ukase of had been pushed forward by the Managers of the Company at St. Petersburg, upon insufficient evidence, and was doomed to commercial failure. It had been adopted by the Government without exhaustive consideration of the rights or claims of other parties, and accompanied by threats that no nation could bear. It was a political blunder. It almost solicited attack.
In the first place it broke up the traffic relations of the Russian American Company with the foreign traders on the Northwest Coast, and cut off the supplies of provisions and other commodities brought by these foreign vessels from their home ports. This was so serious a matter that an order was soon issued from St. Petersburg to open the port of Sitka to foreign vessels, and business revived. In the second place, the American and British trading companies called the attention of Congress and Parliament respectively to the arbitrary measure, and both Governments took immediate and decided action.
On the other hand, Russia had the right of discovery and occupation, but both countries were determined that Russia should not control the North Pacific and Bering Sea. Nevertheless, it was considered sound policy to obtain from her a revocation of the Ukase by friendly words through some happy elasticity of expression that would not wound her proper pride. In the proceedings which resulted from these protests there appeared another "power behind the throne " that had a far-seeing and far-reaching object in view.
After , the Hudson's Bay Company saw its opportunity and brought all its powerful influence to bear upon the home Government to make territorial claims on the Northwest Coast; the proof positive of this assertion is seen in Mr. Russia and Great Britain were thus urged forward by two powerful, rich and rival fur trading companies; and although the Ambassadors of both countries finally signed the Convention, they did so only when these companies were satisfied with the terms.
We shall elsewhere show that they exerted an equal power with their respective Governments upon the naval operations of the Northwest Coast during the Crimean War of Fortunately for the proper understanding of these prolonged negotiations, and their main object, there are sources of contemporary information that declare this object, and the modus operandi by which it was obtained.
As the effects upon traffic, and upon the refusal of the United States and Great Britain to admit such rights, became better known to Russia, the Ukase was quietly abandoned; but the United States and Great Britain determined to have a revocation published. And we have, as your Excellency knows, purposely abstained from requiring any, in the hope that the subject of the Ukase would be merged in the larger arrangements respecting the north-west coast of America. George Canning wrote to Mr. See all 3 photos. Nearby search. Nearby search Please insert a distance in order to get nearby points of interest.
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